digital photography tips with Digital Photo Mentor Darlene Hildebrandt

Get Inspired · Find Creativity · Seek Adventure

Balancing flash and natural light

Using flash in photography is often a source of great confusion. I'm going to try and simplify it down to the bare bones, so that if you've never used flash or have been a bit intimidated by it in the past, hopefully you can make enough sense of it to give it a go.

The “they say” rule of thumb for flash exposure

Stating that:

Flash exposure is directly controlled by aperture and your ambient exposure is directly controlled by your shutter speed

Is a generalization and there are exceptions to that rule, but for now I'm going to keep it simple and start there.

I find the easiest way to understand how this works is to see it in action using different settings with the same subject so you can see how adjusting the settings changes the resulting image. If you want to follow along find yourself a subject and set up a scenario where you can try out some flash photography.


Before you add any flash, take one photograph using only the light that is naturally occurring the scene. That could be sunlight, window-light, or even indoor man-made lights such as fluorescent or tungsten. You'll sometimes see natural light referred to as “ambient” which is actually more accurate, but the two terms are often interchanged. Take it simply to mean the light occurring in the scene that you cannot control, it's already there.

NOTE: the example photographs were taken during my recent workshop in Drumheller of Bob, an ex-miner. Bob was kind enough to pose for us at the coal mine where we did part of the workshop. The room we were in is quite dark with only a few small windows behind the camera.

So first thing I did was to take a “base exposure” using just the ambient light as described above. This is the result. Note the exposure information below in the image caption.

ISO 400, f4.5 for 1/8th of a second using a 32mm lens (on a full frame Canon)

After reviewing the image I decided the lighting from the windows wasn't all that bad, but I thought it could be better. I find the light on Bob is a bit flat, as it's coming from two windows on either side of me, behind camera. What that does when the light falls on the subject from the camera angle is it makes the subject look overly flat, with little dimension and texture. So I decided to add in two flashes set up off camera.


I use a set of remotes that do not use TTL (through the lens) technology which means they fire the flashes but do not communicate any of the exposure data back to the camera. Why you may ask? The answer is simple – I could get remotes that work with TTL but they are about $250 per unit and you need one on the camera (sender) and one on each flash (receivers) so for $750 I could do that. However the set I use is about $99 or less so went through route and just use the flashes in manual power mode. It's really quite simple to use even though it seems harder.

  1. set up your camera
  2. set up your flash
  3. fire a test shot
  4. if the image is too bright turn down the power on the flash, more it further away from the subject, OR use a smaller aperture
  5. if the image is too dark turn up the power on the flash, move it closer, or use a bigger aperture.

So in this respect this is often why you will hear that the aperture controls the flash exposure. Here is a lighting diagram showing how I set up my two flashes off camera.

NOTE: please keep in mind you don't have to break the bank to buy a couple flashes and a set of remote flash triggers! Yongnuo radio triggers and Yongnuo has some excellent affordable options for flashes. For less than about $150 you can get two flashes, and a set of triggers.

My lighting set up showing the position of the two windows and where I placed my two flashes. The one on camera right was bounced into an umbrella.
My lighting set up showing the position of the two windows and where I placed my two flashes. The one on camera right was bounced into an umbrella.

I positioned my flashes and adjusted the power on each so I was getting a good exposure at f4.5. For this first image using flash I used the same exposure settings as the previous image using ambient light only. Note the background appears exactly the same. This is because the exposure hasn't changed and the flashes are not lighting it up.

ISO 400, f4.5, 1/8th of a second using a 24mm lens (on a full frame Canon)
ISO 400 – f4.5 – 1/8th of a second using a 24mm lens (on a full frame Canon)

Notice the only thing that changed was I used a slightly wider lens and moved in a lot closer to him. I did that because I wanted to emphasize him a bit more (things closer to the lens when using a wide angle look larger) but still see enough of the room to see the ceiling. I also had him turn on the lamp on his helmet.


I was pretty happy with that but taking one more look decided I wanted a bit more drama with the lighting on his face. There isn't a lot of contrast on him or ratio (difference between the dark and light side) because the light from the windows behind the camera was acting like a big fill light and brightening up the shadows. So how do I fix that?

Go back to our rule of thumb starting point – aperture controls the flash exposure and shutter speed control ambient. Okay so what that means in this scene is that if I change my aperture it will make Bob darker or lighter because he is being lit primarily by flash. If I change the shutter speed it will affect both Bob and the background. As I want it darker, I simply need to dial in a faster shutter speed and the background will get darker.

Dial in a faster shutter speed and the background will get darker. Huh?!

How that works is our base exposure f4.5 at 1/8th is a correct exposure for the natural light in the room. If I change it f4.5 at say 1/60th (3 stops darker) it is in affect underexposing the room light. If I had taken a shot at that exposure without any flash it would just be dark overall. But remember the flash is firing and lighting up Bob at f4.5 which results in an image that looks like this.

ISO 400, f5, 1/60th of a second
ISO 400 – f5 – 1/60th of a second

For some reason, which I cannot remember now, I did change my aperture to f5. If I recall correctly my exposure on Bob was a little over so I wanted to correct that and going from f4.5 to f5 was enough.

Notice the difference in the lighting on Bob here

Let's look at what's happened:

  • there is more dramatic lighting on his face
  • you can actually see the second flash coming from behind him which is lighting up his ear and side of his face as well as the side of the big wood stove on the left
  • there is more of a stronger ratio (difference between shadows and light areas) on his face
  • the background behind him is darker
  • there is a lot more texture showing in his shirt and on his face (which in this case with a guy like Bob shows more of his character)

For this last image I took it even further and went to yet a faster shutter speed. This added more drama yet, more texture and darkened the interior of the room further. We also added a steam punk play gun as a prop, which as you can see Bob had NO fun with at all! ๐Ÿ˜‰

ISO 400, f5, 1/200th of a second
ISO 400- f5 – 1/200th of a second

Why stop at 1/200th of a second?

If you are wondering why I didn't go to an even faster shutter speed than 1/200th it is because my camera has a flash sync speed of 1/200th of a second (consult your camera's manual to check for your camera sync speed). If I shoot faster than that, the shutter will open and close so fast the flash doesn't have a chance to fully expose the whole scene and I get an image that has a black band across half of it. Many flashes do have a “high speed sync” setting. However – when using the flash off camera and in manual mode that setting is not available. If you are using the flash on camera you can set your flash to “high speed sync” (check your flash manual for how to set that up) and use any shutter speed you want. Or if you fork out the money for the TTL triggers it will also work with them. The only time I really find it necessary to use really fast shutter speeds and flash is when I'm working outdoors and I want to overpower the natural light, which isn't very often.

Before and After

Here is a comparison of the before and after showing the first test shot using just ambient light. Compare that to the after one with flash added. Which do you prefer? Which has more drama? Think you can do this?


Challenge and action plan

I know you can do this, and the beauty of digital photography is that you don't have to wait to find out! Worst case scenario is you do a test and it's not exposed right, but you have the power to review your image immediately and make adjustments. Keep these quick tips handy or write them on an index card to help you. In fact, here's a handy PDF Cheat Sheet for you, just print it off and keep it in your camera bag!


For another article on using flash please read: Off camera flash techniques for dramatic portrait lighting

Quick rules of thumb to use as starting points

  • Flash exposure is controlled by your aperture setting
  • Background and ambient exposure is controlled by the shutter speed (note the subject may get brighter if you use a slower shutter speed to lighten the background)
  • If your flash exposure is too bright you can: move the flash further away from the subject; OR turn down the power output on the flash; OR adjust your aperture to a smaller opening. Ex. you would go from f2.8 to f4.
  • If your flash exposure is too dark (subject is dark) you can: move the flash closer to the subject; turn up the power output on the flash unit; or adjust your settings to a larger aperture. Eg. go from f5.6 to f4.
  • If your background is too dark use a slower shutter speed. Note you will want to use a tripod if your shutter speed is longer than 1/your lens focal length. (eg. if youโ€™re using a 50mm lens if your shutter speed is slower than 1/50th use a tripod)
  • If your background is too bright use a faster shutter speed.

Now get out there, get a flash and be fearless!

Until next time,


You are here: Flash Photography Tutorial ยป Balancing flash and natural light

lightroom alternative photo editing software

Black Friday Coupon Code for Luminar

Use the code DIGITALPHOTOMENTOR to receive $10 off your purchase, until Wed Nov 29.

  • Bill

    Very well explained and a great review.

  • Richard

    I was there when this was done, Darlene is a great teacher and this is very easily explained. And is very nice to have reminders like this article handy. Keep up the good work.

    • Thanks Richard! I’d love to see your images of Bob!

  • Steve


    Nice article! Did you use the same power levels on both flashes?

    • No probably not. The one bounced into the umbrella needs more power to produce the same light.

  • Christine

    Thank you so much for this article. Up until now I dealt only with ambient light in photography because I found the whole process of setting up and using flashes confusing and intimidating. But your easy to understand explanations in how to use flash without over exposing the subject and ultimately enhancing the composition was so easy to understand I am definitely going to invest in some flash accessories when I have the money to! ๐Ÿ™‚ Thank you again. If you haven’t already, I’d appreciate a tutorial like this sometime on how to balance flash with sunlight in outdoor shots, in particular when trying to compensate for unwanted high contrasts. Thanks ๐Ÿ™‚

    • Hi Christine – you’re most welcome.

      As to your request about shooting and balancing in bright sunlight – that is LOT more difficult and something I actually don’t do very often. I choose my time and place for shooting outdoors and if I have to do photos at midday when the sun is high and contrasty – I get my subjects out of the sun and choose a location with a shady background also so eliminate contrast issues.

      Overpowering sunlight you need a powerful flash, TTL remotes (so you can use high speed flash sync) and possibly multiple flashes into one umbrella. There are better, easier ways to work with the light outdoors.

  • Tina

    Love this article! Thank you!

  • Peeter Suns

    Flash or Natural Light ? Chances are, you prefer one over the other; you like the crisp, clean images you get in-studio and youโ€™ve always

  • Lou Razzano

    Thanks Darlene! Your article really taught me something about the use of flash. I rarely use flash and almost always figure out the best way to use ambient light (which I prefer the look of on a subject), but, I do a lot of outdoor shooting and often find myself with subjects that are brightly back lit, and usually just use my on-camera flash (a Nikon D 7100 -with a Tamron 18–270mm lens, which I love and see NO need to upgrade to a full-frame) and now I know that rather than fiddling with the flash intensity if the subjects seem overly lit, I will focus more on going to a faster shutter speed when I need to fill flash but want the background to be darker.

    • Hi Lou – well that will depend on what camera shooting mode you’re using. If you use Manual, yes that will work. But if you’re in any of the auto modes the camera will compensate and give you correct exposure on the background still. Then the flash will fire to equal the aperture which may still be too much. So it could be a combination of changing your shutter speed which will cut the ambient light – and setting the flash to -1 to have a bit less intensity.

  • Thanks again Darlene–I’ll give that a try and let you know how it works for me.

  • jamesellis1960

    Thanks, Darlene. For some reason, I have a hard time understanding correct use of flash. This really helped with the different shots thruout the shoot, showing what you adjusted and how it looked. Thank you!

  • Suz

    this is such a GREAT post. thank you so much for sharing the diagrams and sample shots.

  • Mar

    Very, very, helpful. Love the change from the ambient only to the final. Now, how about when you want to shoot outdoors and have the flash balance/match the ambient background but look natural, not dramatic like in the “Bob” shots? The flash lighting just does not look natural, especially in the golden hrs where the ambient is very warm.

    • Hi @disqus_g5MfjEURqo:disqus I answered this on your comment on the other article about how to use off-camera flash. What brand of flash is it? Have you tested it for color temperature? Normally daylight and flash balance as they are. Unless you’re in really warm ambient light it shouldn’t be an issue. Can you post an example photo of what you mean?

Next Post:

Previous Post:

Featured Photography Special

4 Weeks to Better Photography

An online
photography class for beginners

Join the Photo Community

10 Photography Challenges

Participate in monthly photography challenges. Join our very interactive community, participate in challenges each month that help you stretch and grow. Learn new skills and make your photos "pop".

More Articles Here

All my past photography articles here.

We publish regularly, so if you'd like to posts sent directly to your inbox, just put your name and email into the big orange box at the top of this page.

Adobe Training

Learn how to use Lightroom
Learn how to use Photoshop