While nothing can beat pure experience and time spent photographing, there are many strategies and techniques that can help you shoot street photography more effectively.
Most street photographers shoot in slightly different ways, but here are a few of my favorites tips that I think will help you improve.
#1 Explore the Works of Master Street Photographers
Before you get started, do your research.
I have heard photographers say more than once that they do not want to be influenced by other photographers, but I do not think that this is the correct way to learn.
Let yourself be influenced by as many photographers as possible.
Create a list of your favorite street photographers, and try to find ones that have shot in areas similar to your own or that have a subject matter that you would like to capture. Seek out photo books for your collection, and pay attention to their narratives and sequencing.
Self education is just as important as shooting frequently and editing well.
You do not want to copy these photographers outright, but you want to take your favorite elements and ideas from each of them, and incorporate them into how and what you shoot.
The more you look at the works of great photographers, the better your eye will become.
In addition, it’s inspirational, particularly right before you walk out the door. You can sometimes go awhile without getting a great shot in street photography, and enjoying the works and books of other photographers can keep you inspired while you seek out your own great shots.
Some street photographers to start with
- Henri Cartier-Bresson
- Garry Winogrand
- Lee Friedlander
- Robert Frank
- William Eggleston
- Helen Levitt
- André Kertész
- Josef Koudelka
- Daido Moriyama
- Trent Parke
- Alex Webb
- Martin Parr
Keep in mind, that while this is not a short list, it is just a small portion of the great street photographers that you can and should study.
#2 Try a prime lens and small camera
A lot of beginner street photographers will have an SLR and a mid-range zoom lens to use. That’s a fine way to do this type of photography and how a lot of street photographers began, including myself. But, you should consider investing in a smaller prime lens or a smaller camera system, such as a mirrorless or micro four thirds system.
Smaller cameras are not only less intrusive, but they are much easier to take around with you on a daily basis.
Street photography can be done anywhere, anytime, and because of this, you will find that you will come across a lot of images over the course of your daily life, as opposed to just on weekends when you go out with your SLR.
A small camera system that you can keep in your bag or car, will allow you to shoot much more frequently.
In addition, it will feel more fun to do because of the ease, and you will notice that not everyone is staring at you, as they most likely did with that large SLR and 24-70mm tank of a lens.
If you cannot afford a smaller camera system (and I don’t blame you if you can’t), invest in a smaller sized prime lens, such as a 35mm or a 50mm (or the equivalent of a 35mm or 50mm lens on a cropped sensor).
Prime lenses will significantly lighten your camera, and will make it look much smaller than a typical zoom.
Prime lens help improve your photography
In addition, the constraints of a prime lens can actually help to improve your photography.
The world of street photography typically moves quickly. Sometimes a moment will pop in front of your face briefly and you will have a split second to capture the image before it’s gone.
Using a prime lens consistently allows you to learn to see the world in that specific focal length. You will become faster, and more intuitive with it.
You may not be able to capture that detail in the far background or across the street, but you will learn to use your feet to zoom and get closer to your subjects. For every shot you will miss by not having a zoom, you will make up for it with another shot due to the ease and simplicity of using a prime.
#3 Shoot frequently and close to home
Most photographers restrict themselves to full days, or half days of shooting, in the most interesting areas that they can find. This is so important to do, of course, but it is not the only thing to do.
While these photographers are very dedicated, if they restrict themselves to this way of shooting, they are still cutting out a majority of the time that they have to come across great scenes.
Consider shooting a little bit each day, even if it is only for five minutes at a time.
Carry a small camera with you daily, or use an iPhone if necessary.
Be disciplined and do not worry about where you are, but also make sure that you are having fun.
The point of this all is to have fun with photography. Figure out how to capture an interesting photograph in the most uninteresting of areas.
Go for a walk around your neighborhood. Experiment in all different types of places.
This practice will make you improve more than anything else, and it is quite fun. You should still go out for those epic days and nights of photography, and you should get away from home and explore as often as possible, but try not to forget about it during the week.
Use photography as a quick escape from the routine.
#4 Walk slowly and pick locations
Photographing people candidly is intimidating, especially at first.
If you are walking quickly from place to place and are constantly moving, it makes it even tougher.
Slow down when you shoot, and take your time.
Wander, instead of going directly to a destination. Do not disregard your surroundings, no matter where you are.
If you start thinking about how boring an area is, stop and force yourself to figure out a way to capture an interesting image there.
The best photographers have a knack for taking interesting images wherever they go, and part of the reason is because they do not disregard their surrounding.
They stay patient, and they look.
If you pick a location and wait, it also makes it much easier to capture people. Instead of you entering their personal space, the people will enter your space. It changes the dynamic of the entire encounter, and makes it much easier to capture candid images.
Try to notice people from far away, set up your shot as they get closer and intersect with you, so that they are not fully aware of what is happening.
#5 Portraiture and shots without people
Street photography is the art of capturing candid situations of culture and life. This does not have to include people though. You can, and should, capture street images that do not have people in them.
Just because a person is not in the frame does not mean that the photo can’t portray an aspect of humanity and culture.
There is a whole world of street images that go beyond shots with people in them, and it’s something that is very fun to explore, so take advantage of this idea.
In addition, while portraiture is not considered as typical street photography, you can include portraiture in a street photography project, or group of images. The narrative is often what is most important, and portraiture can be a great way of pushing that narrative.
It is also a fun way to meet people and get comfortable with your surroundings.
The camera is a great excuse to introduce yourself.
Ask people for their portraits and see if you can capture them in a candid moment, or expression within a quick session.
#6 Edit and sequence your images
Editing is so important to the final product. Particularly with street photography, it can be easy to go out and take a deluge of images trying to get that one spectacular moment. It is easy then to become overwhelmed while editing, which causes some people to procrastinate, while the mountain of images quickly grows every time they shoot.
Be ruthless with editing, and use a starring system for your photos.
Use three stars for every decent image, or ones that you are not sure about, and five stars for the spectacular ones.
I do this every time I shoot.
Suddenly, hundreds of images becomes two or three, and months of shooting become just a small set.
You will feel better and more confident about your archive, and editing will become much more pleasurable.
The first step of the organization is the hardest, so do it right away and then come back for the fun.
You should also consider grouping and sequencing your images.
Lightroom allows you to use its system of collections to group photos together into folders, without changing their physical location on the computer.
Create themes and ideas with your images.
Group images in a way that tells a story, or fosters an idea or feeling.
The better you become at this, the easier it will be to find complementary images when you are out photographing.
Editing is half the battle. It is where you first start realizing what it is that you are capturing, and it helps to inform you while you are out shooting and trying to be instinctive.
Now go out and have some fun. Be dedicated and be consistent, but the most important idea is to get lost in the process instead of worrying about the end result.